Flour and Variants

All-purpose wheat flour

Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. Wheat varieties are called "soft" or "weak" if gluten content is low, and are called "hard" or "strong" if they have high gluten content.

Hard flour, or bread flour, is high in gluten, with 12% to 14% gluten content, its dough has elastic toughness that holds its shape well once baked. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and thus results in a loaf with a finer, crumbly texture. Soft flour is usually divided into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour.

In terms of the parts of the grain used in flour, there are three general types of flour. White flour is made from the endosperm only. Brown flour includes some of the grain's germ and bran, while whole grain or wholemeal flour is made from the entire grain, including the bran, endosperm, and germ. Germ flour is made from the endosperm and germ, excluding the bran.

Semolina and/or Semovita is a popular food staple in many parts of West Africa, and are mainly made into pastes to be eaten with soups or stews. Semolina is made from coarsely ground durum wheat while Semovita is a brand of Semolina. Durum wheat endosperm has a rich yellow colour, which is what gives Semolina or Semovita its off-whitish colour. 100g of semolina or semovita gives about 360 calories.